sexta-feira, abril 29, 2011

A Bandeira da Turquia



Bandeira da Turquia. Fonte: http://www-org.rfm.pt/informacao_detalhe. aspx?fid=95&did=65799

 
A origem exata da bandeira turca, Ai Eildiz em turco (lua e estrela), é desconhecida. Sabe-se que seu emblema, uma lua e uma estrela branca, adotados em 1876, são basicamente os símbolos do islã, religião predominante da região, e utilizado em várias regiões da Ásia Menor, muitos anos antes. É provável que sua estética tenha sido idealizada de acordo com o símbolo do Império Otomano, pois as bandeiras são parecidas.

Já o fundo vermelho é razoável, uma vez que é uma cor predominante na história turca, um país marcado por centenas de conflitos violentos ao longo dos anos, sobretudo as batalhas sangrentas da Guerra de Independência Turca.

No princípio, a bandeira turca era apenas uma média lua sobre um campo verde, modificada em 1793 quando o Sultão Selim III trocou o fundo verde por vermelho. Só em 1844, acrescentou-se a estrela, que, segundo algumas teorias, remonta a época do imperador romano Constantino (fundador de Constantinopla, atual Estambul), considerada na época, o símbolo da Virgem Maria.

Curiosamente, há muitas lendas a respeito do significado da bandeira turca.

Dizem que o Sultão Murad II adotou esse emblema, representando o derramamento de sangue na batalha de Kosovo em 1448, sob um céu da Turquia.

Outros afirmam que o primeiro Sultão otomano teve um sonho profético, onde surgia em seu peito, uma lua e uma estrela, que se ampliaram, num presságio da conquista da dinastia de Constantinopla. Mais tarde, com a queda de Constantinopla às mãos do Sultão Mehmed II em 1453, foi visto no céu, uma lua e uma estrela, cumprindo assim, o sonho profético do Sultão.

A lenda mais aceita pela população turca, no entanto, é a que conta que Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, o fundador da República turca, caminhava pelo campo na noite seguinte ao combate vitorioso durante a Guerra de Independência Turca, e percebeu o reflexo da lua crescente e da estrela sobre um vasto fundo de sangue no terreno de uma colina de Sakarya, surgindo assim, o significado da atual bandeira da Turquia.

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